This is (almost) the end of a 4 year frustration of mine! I have been stumped over how to make marshmallows without gelatin (beef or fish) or agar. While my family and I can have regular store bought marshmallows, several years ago, I wanted to make these for an old playmate of Sam’s who was allergic to corn, beef and egg (these do have egg, which is why I am “almost” at the end of this project, but not using gelatin was a MAJOR hurdle to jump! I will work on the egg part next). When you read the ingredient label on a bag of KRAFT Marshmallows, you will see:
The good thing is there are no eggs in Kraft Marshmallows so I know it can be done! Here is an ingredient I learned about today: Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate (what exactly is slightly toxic??).
Makes me look look at celiac disease in a different light. As hard as it to find hidden sources of gluten, I would rather have to deal with avoiding gluten than have to avoid corn and soy… it is literally EVERYWHERE!
Before I do the marshmallow recipe, I want to make sure I clarify a few things. I have had a few people ask me if I am going vegetarian, vegan, joining The Rainbow Family or heading for the hills to live off the “fat of the land,” which I think is their kind way of asking me if I have lost my mind! The simple answer is no (not necessarily in regards to the “losing my mind” part, because I have indeed opened a Pandora’s Box for myself). I have celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis which requires me to be on a strict gluten-free diet for life. That is all I can handle right now in the “no forever” department with regards to food. I do eat corn and use cornstarch as it is a major ingredient in the gluten-free diet, but now that I am at a place of peace and dare I say actual enthusiasm over my GF diet, I am on a quest to “ask the next question” on other foods that I eat and feed my family. I am cutting back on corn (mainly corn syrup and High Fructose Corn Syrup) and incorporating more natural ingredients when I can. But enough on that for now, (in case this is of no interest to you). I will continue my “ramble” after the recipe for the purposes of documenting our family’s journey for my children in the event I get hit by a bus tomorrow (knock on wood).
I came across a very cool blog last week called “Pie of the Tiger,” by Jessica Peterson. Jessica has a recipe for homemade Vegetarian Marshmallows with a picture of the cutest homemade Peep made from her recipe! While reading her post, I clicked on a link for a free PDF download of Texture: A hydocolloid recipe collection, available on Khymos.org. This is a very cool recipe collection that has some rather unusual recipes using different hydrocolloids. Utterly fascinating to my inner food science nerd! I have read the text and I think there are some useful ideas (as well as some not so useful!) for re-creating popular convenience foods at home for people with dietary restrictions, or who want to start eliminating some of the additives that are in main-stream convenience foods. Shoot, this text would fun if used just for science experiments with your kids!
I realize this is not for everyone but it is nice knowing there are options! The following recipe is in the Xanthan Gum section, page 60. Since I am GF, Xanthan Gum is something I keep on hand.
Corn-Free, Gelatin-Free Homemade Marshmallows
60 mL Water
Pinch of Cream of Tartar
255 g. Granulated Sugar
255 g. Light Corn Syrup (I used the homemade Corn-Free, Light “Corn” Syrup)
1/2 Vanilla Bean (I just used 1 tsp. Clear Vanilla Extract and I did not add the extract to the hot syrup mixture itself, but added it after combining the egg whites and hot syrup mixture in my mixer bowl)
85 g. Egg Whites (~ 3 Egg Whites)
5 g. Xanthan Gum (10/2010 Update: BIG BLUNDER on my part: Xanthan Gum is derived from Corn! Try using Guar Gum instead).
- Ground Xanthan Gum with a tablespoon of sugar (I did this in my food processor), set aside
- Heat water, cream of tartar, remaining sugar, corn syrup and vanilla bean to 120° C. (248° F.)
- Meanwhile, whisk egg whites, about 2 minutes, until soft (I took this to mean “foamy”)
- Discard the vanilla bean
- Continue whipping the egg whites at slow speed while slowly adding the hot syrup mixture to the egg whites.
- After adding the hot syrup to the egg whites and while still whipping, sprinkle the xanthan gum/sugar mixture to the egg white/syrup mixture.
(This is also where I added the Clear Vanilla Extract)
- Turn speed up and continue whipping 2 – 3 minutes until the marshmallow pulls away from the sides.
- Sprinkle a pan or baking sheet (I used a 9″x 13″ cake pan, and it was too big, my marshmallows were rather flat and not as “poofy.” Next time, I will make these in an 8″ x 8″ pan), generously with cornstarch (I used corn-free powdered sugar, but you could also use arrowroot powder, potato starch, tapioca starch, sweet potato starch, etc. instead of the corn starch…although, I don’t know how well the starch alone would taste. The author of the Pie of the Tiger blog used vanilla sugar, which sounds great too, especially if you are making homemade Peeps), then add marshmallow mixture and spread out.
- Top marshmallow with the starch, powdered sugar or vanilla sugar (same stuff you used for the bottom).
- Cover with plastic wrap and allow to set in the refrigerator for 4 hours.
- Cut marshmallows into desired shapes and dip cut surfaces into the same starch/powdered sugar or vanilla sugar mixture that was previously used (which I forgot to do before taking my photos and now they are gone!).
The marshmallows are delicious, but not as dense as a commercial marshmallow. We have enjoyed these alone and in hot cocoa so far, but have not tried to use them in a recipe like crispy treats or as Smore’s, so I am not sure how well they work for those purposes.
My pictures are not nearly as good as those that are on the Pie of the Tiger blog, but because I used “un-corn” corn syrup, I wanted to show what mine looked like in comparison with those made with real corn syrup.
So back to my “ramble:”
Up until late December when I watched Food, Inc. for the first time, I knew that things like High Fructose Corn Syrup were probably not good for us, but I did not know WHY they were not good for us. I honestly didn’t give it much attention because it was hard enough to keep track of all the hidden sources of gluten and I have been prone to “not wanting to know” about certain things because that might mean giving up something else!
I am at a place now where I am ready to start finding out what these other ingredients are (like Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate), why they are used, and whether or not I should be eating them. It is a personal journey, and we are all at different places, so please understand that when I make posts touching on things other than the gluten-free lifestyle; I am not trying to be “preachy,” or to make judgments or sway viewpoints or anything other than to share what I am learning, and to leave a personal journal for my children.
Over the past year, I have caught many news clips or articles about the newest “study” that has linked things like Autism, Down Syndrome and ADD/ADHD to celiac disease/gluten intolerance. Or how the GF diet (among other dietary restrictions) can help with managing them. The gluten-free diet has also become that latest “it” diet with people from from all walks of life (non-celiacs) going gluten-free and swearing by how it makes them feel better. There is a lot of debate over whether or not the GF diet is truly beneficial to anyone other than those with celiac, DH or non-celiac gluten intolerance, but I am not one to question how people feel or if a parent sees genuine improvement in their child by going GF. I am not a doctor, medical researcher, etc. so I have nothing scientific to contribute to this other than a humble opinion or two.
I also understand the concern for celiacs (I am one of them) of the gluten-free diet not being taken seriously, or getting lumped in with some kind of new “low carb” diet, and how a restaurant server or fast food worker who does not understand the dire consequences of consuming gluten for people with celiac disease, might be lax and just “pick the croutons out of a pre-made salad” or pick the rogue chicken nugget or onion ring out of the “gluten-free” french fries.
My husband, who does not have to be gluten-free but is for his own personal reasons; swears by the gluten-free diet and how it has made him feel better, have more energy, and lose weight (about 15 lbs.). I do not doubt how he feels, but I do hold him personally responsible for how he explains this to others, and to differentiate his dietary “preferences” from that of Celiac Disease (which he has no problem doing, especially when it comes down to the fact that further perpetuating the misinformation that is already out there can harm his wife and son).
I will also take it a step further by saying it was not the Gluten-Free diet per se, that made Mike feel so much better; but rather what the GF diet excludes (keeping in mind this was prior to Burger King’s new “gluten-free” menu). When Mike went GF, he was no longer grabbing as many McDonald’s or other fast food meals as he possibly could while on his lunch break at work (seriously, it was like he had to stock up just to survive coming home to a GF house for 24 hours!). I also cook a lot (obviously), and I try to limit (not omit entirely) how many processed foods (like hot dogs) we eat, which further reduces the additives in our diets. Seeing the changes in Mike alone, has lent a lot of credibility (for me) to the documentaries (Food, Inc. and King Corn specifically), and the books I have been reading, like The Omnivore’s Dilemma by Michael Pollan. The information I have been taking in has helped to further open my eyes about how our food is made and the overall health and social consequences of those processes. I cannot help but ponder the possible correlation between the rising prevalence of celiac disease (4 times greater than in the 1950’s) and other food allergies, etc. to processed convenience foods and the scientific changes that have been made in wheat and other genetically modified crops over the years to make those convenience foods. I could be totally wrong but it is certainly something to think about!
Check this out for additives (this is Morgan Spurlock from “Supersize Me“):
That my friends, is the reason I don’t eat McDonald’s french fries, gluten-free or not.
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